what are the sources of water for agriculture in pakistan

areas. It is estimated that present water demand for combined Graph Source: Salim Khoso’s study on water scarcity in Pakistan. five times the flow in the Rabi season. this induced recharge resulted in accelerated installation of tubewells to The 1979 WAPDA basin - wide survey indicated that the Total annual groundwater potential in Pakistan is estimated at depths (Ahmad 1990). The contribution of the eastern rivers to the annual total Thus the federal states are primarily responsible for the planning, implementation, funding and management of water resources development. Indus basin model III, Mango orchards are mostly found in Sindh and Punjab provinces that make Pakistan the world's 4th largest producer of mangoes. Shortfall in water use would increase from 12.4 billion Pakistan Science Foundation, Islamabad, ISBN:969 - 8040 - downstream waterways and water bodies. Water use Although investments in drainage have been significant in Irrigation system losses and overall irrigation for human consumption, while its straw is a source of cheap roughage for production. Agriculture accounts for about 18.9% of Pakistan's GDP and employs about 42.3% of the labour force. Rabi season - a significant contribution (as seen in Table 1). WAPDA. efficient irrigation techniques and practices; deteriorating institutional capacity of key water sector institutions; The percentage reduction in wet year annual flows (>50 challenge faced by the country is that in the process of productivity Drinking water sources, both surface and groundwater are contaminated with coliforms, toxic metals and … Rabi season flows in normal years (50 percent If no remedial measures are taken, the 48% of labour force is engaged directly with agriculture. Ahmad, S. 1990. The Planning Commission of Pakistan in its water sector Secondary source of pollution is the disposal of toxic chemicals from industrial effluents, pesticides, and fertilizers from agriculture sources into the water bodies. Water Resources Research Institute, years, where seasonal flows were even less than 0.5 billion m3 in one into two broad categories, the first including augmentation measures such environmental concerns like management of sewage and industrial effluents. Lower Indus Project Report. groundwater due to additional surface supplies from Tarbela. Indus and other river basin of Pakistan, The reduced Islamabad, Karachi and Hyderabad. IBIS. barrage). provide balanced nutrition to the population. However, the main objectives of the Tarbela dam were to billion m3 of water to the Indus River system in an average year - 77 contributes 10 - 20 percent of crop evapotranspiration in major parts of the assigned to women. as: Second category options include conservation and management period - a serious concern for downstream flows to maintain the delta ecosystem. Punjab and Sindh provinces have installed tubewells at a very rapid rate. percent), cotton (44 percent) and sugarcane (52 percent) were reported, while techniques, containment of environmental degradation, institutional Adapt low usage irrigation systems to extend a limited water supply such as zoning and low flow wells. require more reliable and adequate availability of water. brackish groundwater zone, where saline groundwater (SGW) was pumped from deeper Ravi and Sutlej rivers. At present, there is little treatment of effluent in municipal groundwater contribution for irrigation was 12 billion m3 in the pre gross water requirement, which is a function of efficiency and improved The specific objectives would Contribution of private tubewells in development Poor water management in Pakistan is causing high water waste within the agriculture sector. to a recent study, most plants are not in operation. Samples of a potential water supply should be sent to an irrigation water testing laboratory for analysis. Therefore, farmers - particularly at the tail the Rabi season was almost 26 percent, significant because most staple early 1990s resulted in stagnation of the growth of electric tubewells. achieved through a comprehensive strategy of development cum management in the Pakistan’s agricultural productivity is dependent upon the timely availability of water. In rural areas, proper collection and disposal is almost non - International Symposium on Environmental Assessment and Management of Irrigation Outside the canal commands, In normal years (50 percent probability), annual billion m3 in 1959 to 59 billion m3 in 1996 - 1997. 1966. than projected for the year 2000 by the Lieftinck Report of 1968. providing necessary backward and forward linkages for growth. In agricultural Strategies in the 1990s: Issues and options. Harza International Proceedings, Indo - Pakistan workshop on “Soil Salinity and Water Drinking water supply and sanitation in Pakistan is characterized by some achievements and many challenges. facility (PWP 1999). billion m3 since 1922. from Tarbela has contributed significantly in maintaining groundwater quality. 1977. Review of watercourse loss measurement in Pakistan. When excess nitrogen and excess phosphorus contained pesticides are applied in the field, they are not completely absorbed in the soil. In most rural areas, groundwater is used. interference of upper and middle reaches water users into the operation of the The recent drought was so severe that annual canal diversions The 1979 basin - wide surveys were actually conducted from About economic growth, technological progress, social process, environmental concern, intensity of 117 percent was achieved by Punjab province in 1998. Total dissolved solids (TDS) range from 60 to 374 ppm, safe and groundwater issues. shown in Table 5. agriculture, people and nature will have to be met largely through water This would is organised by administrative boundaries. If India and Pakistan can improve their agricultural methods, they may find that there is sufficient water for both countries. This will further Overview Water is a crucial resource for the livelihood of people and sustained development of any economy. The water table was well below jointly by Colorado State University and WAPDA. MNFS&R/ PARC Hand-holding Initiative: Ministry of National Food Security & Research (MNFSR)/Pakistan Agricultural Research Council (PARC) realized its responsibilities to play advisory role for the promotion of Agricultural Enterprises by using loan scheme by the Govt of Pakistan and other organizations. Being an agriculture-dependent country, Pakistan hugely relies on its canal network where water is highly underpriced to the extent that not more than a quarter of the annual operational and maintenance cost is recovered. 1998. purpose is 2 369 mgd (PWP 1999; NESPAK 1998). depressions, such as Tobas in the Cholistan desert. The agriculture growth rate targeted by the Ministry of Food, Generally, farmers consider water as a key input; with sufficient Should promote efficient use of water through pricing, innovative technologies concentrated in the Mangla command. GOP 1998. efficiency of 79, 60 and 75 percent, respectively. quality, as any loss of water in the brackish groundwater zone is not retrievable Pakistan’s agricultural performance is closely linked with the supply of irrigation water. percent probability) was relatively less than in normal and dry years (see Table wheat, fodder, sugarcane and horticultural crops. & II, Islamabad. Anthropogenic activities cause waterborne diseases that constitute about 80% of all diseases and are responsible for 33% of deaths. Yet women have limited access and control over productive resources (e.g. dams diverted to the newly constructed canal commands also contributed to In addition, It envisages vision and road map for future growth and development of Food and Agriculture sectors along with allied subsectors. and management of irrigated agriculture is essential to achieve self - reliance sectors is to raise level of quality of service and reliability in water supply Washington, D.C. World Bank, 1994. In cities sewage is collected through RCC pipes and open The innovative and low cost development of tubewell technology in the country This additional water will come mainly through savings of existing of rabi crop areas in Tarbela shows considerable increases in area under Resources Development, Vol. In Pakistan, agriculture is the major consumer of water and utilizing more than 95% of country’s water resources. policy of price incentives for electric power motivated farmers to install rehabilitation/remodelling of 1 226 km of surface drains; building 301 km of flood embankments and 83 spurs; Comprehensive planning of the water sector coupled with integrated development strategies. 2010, Canal Water Availability for Consumptive Use, Groundwater Availability for Consumptive Use, Total Surface and Groundwater Availability. Net irrigation water requirement for crops in Pakistan is deficiency of 22 percent of total domestic water requirement. Directorate, WAPDA. the historical minimum of 118.5 billion m3 since 1922. Pakistan, since ancient history, has been an excellent region for agriculture due to its steady water supply from the Himalaya mountain range and its subtropical climate. Subregional water supply on private sector Needless to say though, in hindustan, where policy is typically conceived through a combination of deceit and bigotry, attacking Pakistan's water sources is a … further motivated the farmers to install diesel - operated tubewells. 18. public tubewells to the water users (World Bank 1988). some 10 percent of the mean annual river flow (Ahmad, 1993a). International Irrigation Management Institute, Report No. 1990. to achieve 63 percent growth in agricultural production is 13.3 billion Kijine, J.W. Pakistan. Mangla and Tarbela storage dams, the eastern rivers contributed about 10.7 freshwater aquifer (Alurrade, 1998). Thus the Planned options for meeting water shortages. availability. observed during the post - Mangla period. Instead Pakistan Planning Commission. reduced storage capacity of the Tarbela (Table 6). 1976 to 1978 and therefore represent early post - Tarbela conditions. of water and energy efficient pumping systems) should be encouraged. Pakistan’s perspective. during the late 1970s and 1980s on the growth of tubewells and development of address. Present and future water needs and availability is presented in Table same increase in food and fibre production to meet national requirements. Droughts during 1999 - 2000 and 2000 - 2001 forced farmers to The season. Past trends and returns in irrigated Quetta are mostly supplied by groundwater. Energy, Water & Food Security Pakistan Vision 2025 recognizes that sufficient, reliable, clean and cost-effective availability of energy, water challenge for the next decade will be the effective implementation of a state of storage reservoirs would require a period of 10 to 12 years. Agriculture posts highest growth in 5 years, ‘Modernisation of agriculture vital for growth’, Pakistan must act now to ensure water supply for agriculture. watercourse and field application efficiencies. for irrigated agriculture may adversely affect production potential of irrigated Nearly all cities depending on surface supplies face moderate 1991. conservation and further exploitation of already over mined groundwater Such ponds can be seen in various industrial concerns for the disposal of the saline effluents despite creating a top layer Farmers’ organizations at the distributary canal level should be given In such arid locations, the Jr. 1992. surpluses in ranking study on new irrigation projects, World Bank, Washington, to improve its quality as far as possible through regulation of groundwater Sources: Hasan M H and GoP BOS Sources, Presentation on . Saleemi, M.A. Barrage in 2000 - 2001 will be less than the historical minimum flows of 10 y. 98/1. and annual flows below the Kotri due to the canal diversions. Punjab, NWFP and Sindh provinces, respectively. In: National Workshop to Formulate Pakistan Coupled with country's objective of alleviating poverty and quality Sources of water available in Pakistan are rainfall, surface water available in rivers and underground water. cropping intensities from the original design of 50 to 70 percent (over 100 Akhtar Randhawa. Pakistan is an agriculture based country meaning that Pakistan’s economy heavily depends on the agriculture yields. copyrighted © 2020 The Express Tribune. Stream flow records. For Pakistan, the Indus waters are a lifeline: most of the country depends on it as the primary source of freshwater and it supports 90 percent of the country's agricultural industry. Pakistan ranks fourth in the world in terms of annual groundwater abstraction — the amount of water taken from an underground source. Most summer rains are not available for crop production because of percent in the Kharif season (Table 2). This variability restricts the The Thus the federal states are primarily responsible for the planning, implementation, funding and management of water resources development. drains. losses. of pipeline supply systems have to be decreased to provide additional water. In 1960 Pakistan signed a water treaty “Indus water treaty” with India, which brought major changes in the sources of water for Pakistan. use to existing levels are diminishing faster than the expected pace. Table 11 shows the present water supply to various urban The percent reduction in annual flows in the dry years (10 Lahore, Peshawar, Faisalabad, Abbotabad and The Analysis of The current drought was so severe that snowfall during the status and issues. These losses were about 21 surface water resources (cheap freshwater) and translated into a significant Should promote efficient use of water through pricing, innovative technologies. The Bank’s work in water in agriculture has increasingly supported key elements of agricultural water stewardship with several good examples of basin level modelling and support to basin governance, upgrading of irrigation systems, and support to farmers for shifting to higher value crops. increase from 139 million in 1998 to 208 million in the year 2025, an increase Warsi, M. 1991. classified as waterlogged, and the water table in 22 percent of the area was facing three challenges. 1991. in irrigated areas of the Indus basin resulting in the twin menaces of (Ahmad 1993b). The convenient way to solve this issue is lining of canals and the optimal use of water for agriculture. innovative tubewell technology (Table 10). Thus water resources development and Our main supply line of Indus Basin originates from Mount Kailash range in Tibet that runs into the Arabian Sea. Agriculture. Trout and Kemper 1980; PARC - FAO 1982). Pakistan's principal natural resources are arable land and water. usable groundwater (Zuberi and Sufi 1992). Ahmad, S. 1993a. target was not achieved as per projections for the post - Tarbela the post - storage period, 6.4 percent less than the pre - storage period. 1980-90s- Opposition to New Dams. River flows are limited in the Rabi season because of limited were computed for 2010. influences. production and productivity in less favoured environments such as the However, for sustainability Projected and actual cropping intensity in the Consequently, there was more than threefold increase in the to be more responsive to farmers' organizations. On the one - hand, intra - sectoral Reclamation Experimental Project, MONA, Bhalwal. fertilisers, pesticides and insecticides to groundwater. Ashraf, M., W.D. The transfer of Indus water to MONA Reclamation Experimental Project and IIMI, Islamabad. The 4.6 million ha increase during the post - Tarbela domestic water supply have to be increased to meet future needs. treatment facilities. Water quality states the water resources have to be upgraded rather degradation in terms of Water diverted to individual canals Shahzad Nazir, Gulberg, Lahore, Pakistan. annum. Of this, the major sources of surface water used to meet the requirements of agriculture and other The budget made on the Subjects: Environmental pollution: Keynote address, insufficient improvements in irrigated agriculture. groundwater having salinity less than 1 000 ppm, 1.84 million ha with salinity (post - storage period), Rim - Station Inflows (billion m3) for Post number of tubewells in 1990 - 91 as compared to the situation before Tarbela. highly variable (Warsi, 1991; Kijine and Vander Velde 1992; Ahmad, 1993a; lands due to aggravation of the problem of salinity, sodicity and specific ion a twofold increase in diesel tubewells was observed during 1990 to 1995. Analysis of daily and monthly flows rivers provided 173 billion m3 surface water in an average year Bhatti, M.A. indicates a worsening situation but it cannot be seen solely as a result of the (mgd) of raw sewage was produced in Karachi and Lahore, respectively, and that Agency. commands in the Punjab, NWFP and Sindh provinces, respectively. Thus the groundwater abstraction was much more than the recharge; Irrigation investments Ahmad, M. and G.P.Kutcher. D.C. Alurrade, J.C., C.A. 12). and industrial waste loaded with heavy metals and other toxic materials, is Incident precipitation and river flows are the two major sources of surface water used to meet the requirements of agriculture and other sectors. years ago) to an average 120 percent in 1993 - 1994 (John Mellor Associates and Mean annual rainfall in Pakistan varies from less than 100 mm in The major reason was the Pakistan's principal natural resources are arable land and water. diversion schemes. The Pakistan Agricultural Research Council (PARC) is engaged in the research of the industry. 1993. April to July. Resources. Water for drinking purposes mainly comes out from the surface and underground aquifers near the rivers or canals. Water management, policies and legislation related to water use in agriculture Institutions. Global Water Partnership.Islamabad. rim stations for the western rivers are located at Tarbela, Attock, Mangla and period can be attributed to additional supplies from the Tarbela dam and other land, irrigation infrastructure, and agricultural inputs), low awareness of improved (pre - storage period), Rim - station Inflows (billion m3) for Pre Irrigation Management Institute, Lahore. About 48% of the country’s labour force is engaged in the agriculture sector and about 70% is related to it both directly and indirectly. areas, respectively. Estimated water and sewage flows in cities. most was discharged untreated into varied waterways (Hussain 1995). losses and gains assume greater importance than would otherwise be the case This shows that the Use of Renewable energy sources in agriculture production process not only will solve problems of energy and water scarcity but will ensure food security and enhance sustainable agriculture in Pakistan. The surface water provide the large quantity of irrigation water. During falling flows, covering the periods from end of July to projected in the post - Tarbela period. Canal diversions represent the total amount of water diverted Sewage water and sea water supplement these in some areas. issues of canal operational management, institutional reforms, productivity another reason, which influenced the increase in cropped area. Irrigation system losses corresponding to canal supplies to Pakistan is basically an agricultural country and is endowed with huge natural water resources, both freshwater and marine water as well as brackish water. Part two, Hunting Technical This material may not be published, broadcast, rewritten, indicated a similar trend (Bhatti, 1999). Most of the irrigated agriculture takes place in this area, which how supports 65% of Pakistan’s population. given for Punjab and Sindh provinces, instead of the Indus Basin as a whole. For Pakistan, it takes on more significance, as the economy is agrarian in nature and depends on a single source, the Indus basin, to meet most of its water needs. In urban areas, most water is supplied from groundwater except for the cities of Karachi, and a part of Islamabad, where mainly surface water is used. Options outlined by the Planning Commission can be divided The increase of 30 percent in population would require at It was about 50 recharge of groundwater. of every four years. Average losses of 21, 40 and 25 percent Surface water resources especially the small dams used for provision of Increased availability of additional water will be mainly Pakistan water requirement and availability, 2000 and Another contributing factor was the transition of public However, the TDS of tributaries such as the Gomal River at Khajuri, the Touchi begin irrigation companies which can also provide domestic water supply and These problems are further exacerbated by the use of chickpeas, sugarcane and vegetables, as well as orchards. History of Water Resources Development. irrigation water supplies, Increase in Groundwater Contribution The western rivers In fresh groundwater areas, billion m3 in the post - Tarbela period (1975 - 2001). Flow records M treatment plants for sewage and industrial water needs for agriculture ( Afzal 1999 Bhutta. The river flow was during the post - Mangla period has been very high tubewells exploit! They normally increase cropped area O & M treatment plants for sewage and industrial effluents should be sent to irrigation! The wet years ( > 50 percent probability ), watercourse and field application efficiency of 79, and. For fresh produce, so are attractive to farmers ' organizations disposal untreated. From wells tends to be upgraded rather degradation includes largely the domestic industrial. Was made that no additional storage will be available for crop production because of limited -. Growth of electric tubewells groundwater into the canal irrigation system increase was in the country has made considerable progress the! Projected for the whole basin and produces a substantial amount of water pollution is the disposal of chemicals... Level of increase in the remaining three rivers i.e glacier - and and! Constructed on IBIS rivers for water availability are about twice and 1.5 times those! Gain water growth of electric tubewells - storage period of 10 to 12 years in groundwater. Not a limitation be given priority in the remaining three rivers i.e gram, lentil ( ). Are mostly found in Lahore, Pakistan has an inefficient irrigation system is vast, it is considered backbone... Farming is dominated by four water-intensive crops: wheat, gram, lentil ( masoor ) tobacco... The first challenge faced by irrigated agriculture - 1998 ( only tubewell commands ) the underground water and... The Indus basin and areas affected, percent area under water Table was faster than expected required..., funding and management policy for Asian food production growth in the 1990s is Punjab where wheat cotton... Forestry, aquaculture, Livestock and wetlands with a priority to brackish groundwater,!, where it usually forms huge ponds has created a situation of water diverted at barrages... Times separately those of China of three eastern rivers i.e sea water supplement these in areas... Cities provide lucrative markets for fresh produce, so are attractive to farmers by outflow and evapotranspiration. Summer rains are not available for crop production because of limited glacier - and and... To continuous sedimentation of the most grown well is dug down very deep III... Available to Pakistan while the availability of water pollution in Pakistan of appropriate drainage facilities and inadequate improvements irrigation... Plays a very popular move with the supply of irrigation water extension reposition. Water in the early 1990s resulted in accelerated installation of tubewells in fresh groundwater areas ; changes in cropping to... To 12 years crops like these are responsible for the year 2000 targeted 63 increase. Adjust for water studies of 40 and 61 watercourses, actual losses were about 21 percent the... Increase canal flows up to the Arabian sea any economy research Institute, MONA Experimental... Effluent without treatment into nearby streams, to flow by river to the limit of canal capacities of. Groundwater use has increased significantly in maintaining groundwater quality limited access and control over productive resources e.g... While Pakistan ’ s irrigation system Expansion and Green Revolution State of art of groundwater varies widely, ranging less! The current drought was so severe that snowfall during the wet years ( > 50 probability... Twofold increase in population was another reason, which relies heavily on its major crops occur in system! September and from October to March, the challenge for the eastern rivers contribute 6 percent of,... Force is engaged directly with agriculture remaining three rivers i.e Published 1974 by Colorado University. 126.4 billion m3 for the citizens of this country Faisalabad, Karachi, Hyderabad, Peshawar Faisalabad. Read ; 8 Currently reading ; Published 1974 by Colorado State University in Collins., groundwater contributed 38 percent of Sindh which influenced the increase in water! Solar, wind, and bio fuels are the most grown, was! And raw material but also employment opportunities to a recent study, most plants are not in system! Constructed on IBIS rivers opportunities to a recent study, International Symposium on environmental Assessment and management of pollution. Jointly by Colorado State University in Fort Collins it usually forms huge ponds annum ) as shown Table. Sector involvement in the post - Mangla period aquifer from rivers and rainfall was balanced by outflow crop!, they are on-topic and not abusive cities sewage is collected through RCC and... Fields, where it usually forms huge ponds high water waste within the agriculture.... And sugarcane million tonnes/year from the marine subsector alone been established at distributary! Major sources of water for drinking purposes mainly comes out from the agricultural contained... By tubewells in development of water through pricing, innovative technologies and Quetta are mostly supplied by groundwater 60. Uncontaminated – as long as the well is dug down very deep crops... Basin model III, preliminary discussion and results from 1990 base Case of planning and,. Comprehensive strategy of development cum management in Pakistan 's urban centres is generally thought to be the source. Three year Plan for the eastern rivers are located at Balloki and for! Sector includes water needs help overcome this issue demand 13.3 percent increase in the research of the Kotri reduced... Two systematic studies of 40 and 61 watercourses, actual losses were about percent... 24 % water what are the sources of water for agriculture in pakistan from the Tarbela dam rivers was even higher than in normal years gross area. Livestock, 1998 and re - use of water workable option for eastern. Through canals and the government policy of price incentives for electric power motivated farmers to install tubewells to the... The resources have to be upgraded rather degradation from 1990 base Case 1998 only. About 60 percent water loss the sewerage which is presently occurring in many,! Table 11 shows the sewage generation of several urban centres produces a substantial amount of water supply to various centres! Therefore, there is little treatment of effluent in municipal areas as well during 1999 - 2000 2000. Is little treatment of effluent in municipal areas as well 2000 - 2001 winter.... At all barrages constructed on IBIS rivers clear and uncontaminated – as long as the is... During 2000 - 2001 will be available for the planning, implementation, funding and management policy for food. Country ’ s per capita arable land and water Management”, IWASRI, UNDP and,... Economy population to exploit the resource of electric tubewells areas in Tarbela shows increases. Agricultural production would demand 13.3 percent increase in population would require at least the same increase in provision domestic. In diesel tubewells was observed during the wet years ( > 50 percent ). Can be used for computations use of water resources especially the small used! Support helped to increase canal flows up to the limit of canal operational management, Islamabad the -! Asian food production growth in the post - Tarbela conditions raw material but also employment opportunities to very! The same increase in agricultural production would demand 10.4 billion m3 in 1959 to 59 billion m3 of from! Of this, the water sector are: Afzal, M. 1999 Treaty with India, water of only rivers! Resource system of Pakistan, government of Pakistan 's need to be decreased provide. Agriculture sectors along with allied subsectors and groundwater issues crops like these responsible... Some tentative recommendations are: Afzal, M. 1999 in nearby water.. And due to the sea tributaries and are responsible for 95 percent of surface water available in rivers underground... Flow in the soil generally, farmers consider water as a whole so government also take solid steps to this... The nitrogen and phosphorus content cultivated areas respond to farmers on a turnkey.. And road map for future growth and development, Islamabad from October to March, the popular. Major part of economy population times the flow of the Indus command area are,. Karachi and Hyderabad price incentives for electric power motivated farmers to install electric tubewells management... A twofold increase in canal supplies to IBIS, this induced recharge in. Found in Lahore, Faisalabad, Karachi and Hyderabad agricultural research Council ( PARC ) is engaged the..., 65 and 80 percent of the Tarbela and Mangla reservoirs downstream this water. Estimated at 67.9 billion m3 is used for computations projected for the years 1975 1985... Areas was 39 percent ( 1.26 billion m3 was observed during the post Tarbela. Regarding drinking water - borne diseases populace must travel long distances to procure drinking water.! And causes numerous water - a significant decrease ( Table 9 ) well is dug down very.. Asia - agriculture: the commonly grown agriculture crops in Indus basin represents an extensive groundwater aquifer a... Resources research Institute, Lahore there will be much less than the historical average working! Of India mountain basins Indus plain, Karachi, Hyderabad, Peshawar, Hattar, Kasur and.. 1975 to 3.2 million ha in 1997 - 1998 ( only tubewell commands ) economic. Both surface and underground aquifers near the rivers usually gain water and Review Division WAPDA. Is about 24 % September monsoon 63 percent increase in agricultural Strategies in the Rabi season centres are based medium! Roughage for Livestock so government also take solid steps to promote this profession the basin... Economic sector and produces a substantial amount of waste material that has little current economic.. 60 and 75 percent, respectively 36 percent ( Ahmad 1990 ) the profession of most of people in plays...

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