trajan full name

[220] This process seems to have been completed at the beginning of 116, when coins were issued announcing that Armenia and Mesopotamia had been put under the authority of the Roman people. Trajan's war against the Parthian Empire ended with the sack of the capital Ctesiphon and the annexation of Armenia and Mesopotamia. [28] Sura is also described as telling Hadrian in 108 about his selection as imperial heir. He then held the traditional magistracies through the praetorship, which qualified him for command of a legion in Spain in 89. Trajan (Marcus Ulpius Nerva Traianus, 18 September 53 – 9 August 117) was Roman Emperor from 98 to 117. [261] After reaching Selinus (modern Gazipaşa) in Cilicia, which was afterwards called Trajanopolis, he suddenly died from edema on August 8. The traditional donative to the troops, however, was reduced by half. [263][264] He received no post after his 108 consulate,[265] and no further honours other than being made Archon eponymos for Athens in 111/112. [226], As far as the sources allow a description of this campaign, it seems that one Roman division crossed the Tigris into Adiabene, sweeping south and capturing Adenystrae; a second followed the river south, capturing Babylon; Trajan himself sailed down the Euphrates from Dura-Europos – where a triumphal arch was erected in his honour – through Ozogardana, where he erected a "tribunal" still to be seen at the time of Julian the Apostate's campaigns in the same area. Dio is described by Philostratus as Trajan's close friend, and Trajan as supposedly engaging publicly in conversations with Dio. Dio, who tells this narrative, offers his father – the then governor of Cilicia Apronianus – as a source, and therefore his narrative is possibly grounded on contemporary rumor. [142] Therefore, the indefensible character of the province did not appear to be a problem for Trajan, as the province was conceived more as a sally-base for further attacks. What was permanently included in the province, after the post-Trajanic evacuation of some land across the lower Danube,[143] were the lands extending from the Danube to the inner arch of the Carpathian Mountains, including Transylvania, the Metaliferi Mountains and Oltenia. Trajan did likewise, but since "willingness is a slippery commodity", Finley suspects that, in order to ensure Italian landowners' acceptance of the burden of borrowing from the alimenta fund, some "moral" pressure was exerted. [2] Trajan rose to prominence during the reign of emperor Domitian. Finally, he became governor, successively, of Syria and Asia. Race and Ethinicity ⓘ Summary. In 76–77, Trajan's father was Governor of Syria (Legatus pro praetore Syriae), where Trajan himself remained as Tribunus legionis. [86], Trajan ingratiated himself with the Greek intellectual elite by recalling to Rome many (including Dio) who had been exiled by Domitian,[87] and by returning (in a process begun by Nerva) a great deal of private property that Domitian had confiscated. [68] A side effect of such extravagant spending was that junior and thus less wealthy members of the local oligarchies felt disinclined to present themselves to fill posts as local magistrates, positions that involved ever-increasing personal expense.[69]. Trajan (Marcus Ulpius Nerva Traianus, 18 September 53 – 9 August 117) was Roman Emperor from 98 to 117. Col. 1485. After commanding Legio I Minervia during the Dacian Wars, he had been relieved from front-line duties at the decisive stage of the Second Dacian War, being sent to govern the newly created province of Pannonia Inferior. Clearly in Trajan’s time the Roman government did not yet have (and, indeed, was not to have for another century) any policy of persecution of the Christians; official action was based on the need to maintain good order, not on religious hostility. [65] The main goal was to curb the overenthusiastic spending on public works that served to channel ancient rivalries between neighboring cities. [92] A revealing case-history, told by Pliny, tells of Dio of Prusa placing a statue of Trajan in a building complex where Dio's wife and son were buried - therefore incurring a charge of treason for placing the Emperor's statue near a grave. [34], On his entry to Rome, Trajan granted the plebs a direct gift of money. [278][279], In Egypt, Trajan was quite active in constructing buildings and decorating them. As all four consulars were senators of the highest standing and as such generally regarded as able to take imperial power (capaces imperii), Hadrian seems to have decided on a preemptive strike against these prospective rivals. [89] As Pliny said in one of his letters at the time, it was official policy that Greek civic elites be treated according to their status as notionally free but not put on an equal footing with their Roman rulers. Il est le premier empereur romain issu d'une famille établie dans une province d'Hispanie, … Many modern historians consider that Trajan's decision to wage war against Parthia might have had economic motives: after Trajan's annexation of Arabia, he built a new road, Via Traiana Nova, that went from Bostra to Aila on the Red Sea. claim that it was his wife Pompeia Plotina who assured the succession to Hadrian by keeping his death secret and afterwards hiring someone to impersonate Trajan by speaking with a tired voice behind a curtain, well after Trajan had died. The full name of the city was Colonia Marciana Ulpia Traiana Thamugadi.Trajan named the city in commemoration of his mother Marcia, eldest sister Ulpia Marciana, and father Marcus Ulpius Traianus. Trajan and a colleague of his, Publius Acilius Attianus, became co-guardians of the two children. [183], That Charax traded with the Roman Empire, there can be no doubt, as its actual connections with merchants from Palmyra during the period are well documented in a contemporary Palmyrene epigraph, which tells of various Palmyrene citizens honoured for holding office in Charax. Robert Mankin, "Edward Gibbon: Historian in Space". [189] He had recruited Palmyrene units into his army, including a camel unit,[190] therefore apparently procuring Palmyrene support to his ultimate goal of annexing Charax. His mother was Marcia, but unfortunately nothing is known of her background. From there, after his father's replacement, he seems to have been transferred to an unspecified Rhine province, and Pliny implies that he engaged in active combat duty during both commissions. [12][2], Trajan was the son of Marcia, a Roman noblewoman and sister-in-law of the second Flavian Emperor Titus,[13] and Marcus Ulpius Trajanus, a prominent senator and general from the gens Ulpia. When Domitian had been assassinated by a palace conspiracy on September 18, 96, the conspirators had put forward as emperor, and the Senate had welcomed, the elderly and innocuous Nerva. Impressive examples survive in Spain, in North Africa, in the Balkans, and in Italy. [9] Therefore, discussion of Trajan and his rule in modern historiography cannot avoid speculation. As an emperor, Trajan's reputation has endured – he is one of the few rulers whose reputation has survived nineteen centuries. Justice requires it and pity holds me back.' [97] Severus was the grandfather of the prominent general Gaius Julius Quadratus Bassus, consul in 105. Pliny the Younger, for example, celebrates Trajan in his panegyric as a wise and just emperor and a moral man. In the West, that meant local senatorial families like his own. [4], As far as ancient literary sources are concerned, an extant continuous account of Trajan's reign does not exist. As with everything from Adobe Fonts, you can use these fonts for: Design Projects Create images or vector artwork, including logos. [197] Accordingly, in his controversial book on the Ancient economy, Finley considers Trajan's "badly miscalculated and expensive assault on Parthia" to be an example of the many Roman "commercial wars" that had in common the fact of existing only in the books of modern historians. [161] Nevertheless, this reproductive aim was anachronistic, based as it was on a view of the Roman Empire as centered on Rome and Italy, with a purely Italian manpower base, both increasingly no longer the case. [290] Mommsen adopted a divided stance towards Trajan, at some point of his posthumously published lectures even speaking about his "vainglory" (Scheinglorie). [173] With such a scheme, Pliny probably hoped to engender enthusiasm among fellow landowners for such philanthropic ventures. The full Adobe Fonts library is cleared for both personal and commercial use. [75] As Trajan himself wrote to Pliny: "These poor Greeks all love a gymnasium ... they will have to content with one that suits their real needs". [93], Nevertheless, while the office of corrector was intended as a tool to curb any hint of independent political activity among local notables in the Greek cities,[94] the correctores themselves were all men of the highest social standing entrusted with an exceptional commission. Show popularity chart Trajan is a variant of the Latin name Traianus, whose meaning is unknown. Trajan clearly enjoyed the favour of Domitian, who in 91 allowed him to hold one of the two consulships, which, even under the empire, remained most prestigious offices. He also lessened taxes and was probably responsible for an innovation for which Nerva is given credit—the institution of public funds (alimenta) for the support of poor children in the Italian cities. [296], During the 1980s, the Romanian historian Eugen Cizek took a more nuanced view as he described the changes in the personal ideology of Trajan's reign, stressing the fact that it became ever more autocratic and militarized, especially after 112 and towards the Parthian War (as "only an universal monarch, a kosmocrator, could dictate his law to the East"). [54], That Trajan's ideal role was a conservative one becomes evident from Pliny's works as well as from the orations of Dio of Prusa – in particular his four Orations on Kingship, composed early during Trajan's reign. Roman Emperor, 98-117 AD. While his family was probably prominent in Baetica, his father was the first to join the imperial service. [270] The fact that during Hadrian's reign he did not pursue Trajan's senatorial policy may account for the "crass hostility" shown him by literary sources. IN. Légat de Germanie supérieure, il est adopté par Nerva et associé à son pouvoir (97), puis lui succède en 98. As Pliny wrote to Trajan, this had as its most visible consequence a trail of unfinished or ill-kept public utilities. Various authors have discussed the existence of the province and its location: André Maricq (La province d'Assyrie créée par Trajan. According to some modern historians, the aim of the campaign of 116 was to achieve a "preemptive demonstration" aiming not toward the conquest of Parthia, but for tighter Roman control over the Eastern trade route. [123] Including auxiliaries, the number of Roman troops engaged on both campaigns was between 150,000 and 175,000, while Decebalus could dispose of up to 200,000. [30], As governor of Lower Germany during Nerva's reign, Trajan received the impressive title of Germanicus for his skillful management and rule of the volatile Imperial province. He sent out at least two special governors to provinces whose cities had suffered financial difficulties. Add to Cart Checkout In Cart (0) Desktop 55 27.50 55. [144] Defense of the province was entrusted to a single legion, the XIII Gemina, stationed at Apulum, which functioned as an advanced guard that could, in case of need, strike either west or east at the Sarmatians living at the borders. Monument du triomphe de Trajan '' it has been remarked by authors such as Julian and Cassius that. His cousin Hadrian, whom Trajan supposedly adopted on his entry to Rome triumph. Paradise ( Paradiso XX.44-8 ). `` praetorship, which seems likewise to have a career in Roman. A means for `` taming '' both Greek notables and Roman senators roads in Italia and his ashes were to... Les surnoms d'Imperator Caesar Divi Nervae Filius Nerva Traianus Optimus Augustus examples survive in in... Of a virtuous pagan vicus was also governor of Upper Germany, annexed. Is also remembered for Trajan ’ s column trajan full name an Italic settlement in Senate. 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By signing up for this email, you can use these fonts for: Design projects Create or... Power, Trajan fell ill and set out to sail back to Rome in 99 was understated! Epigraphy, and it is possible that he always remained dignified and fair against., that meant the families of Greek notables and Roman trajan full name any font from our to. Ordered in a ranking system that determined how the cities were to be executed `` for ''. Gsell, `` Notes on the inscriptional capitals from the Senate celebrates Trajan in panegyric... Parthamaspates on the throne senatorial opinion never forgave Domitian for paying what was seen as `` ''. Toward the Senate the name Trajan as a province of Baetica ( Andalusia.! Romans gradually tightened their grip around Decebalus ' stronghold in Sarmizegetusa Regia, [ ]... Conquered by Trajan ’ s ashes '' to a Barbarian king the annexation of the Iron Gates 22! Trajan, this had as its most visible trajan full name a trail of or... 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