commodus months of the year

This came to a head as a group of disaffected soldiers gathered around the charismatic rogue Maternus, who led a plot to assassinate Commodus. [38] On another occasion, Commodus killed three elephants on the floor of the arena by himself. Having endured the loss of one son, Marcus Aurelius was keen to ensure that the route of imperial succession was clear. Later that year he adopted as his full style Lucius Aelius Aurelius Commodus Augustus Herculeus Romanus Exsuperatorius Amazonius Invictus Felix Pius (the order of some of these titles varies in the sources). The sources make clear that, as a man, Commodus was a fine physical specimen with an enjoyment of physical pursuits, including horse and chariot racing, as well as sparring. The title suggests that Commodus was present at his father's victory over the Marcomanni. 1, eingeleitet und übersetzt von E. Hohl, bearbeitet und übersetzt von E. Merten (1976) 138. Food shortages ravaged Rome in 190, and the Prefect of the Annona, or grain supply (the praefectus annonae) laid the blame at Cleander’s door. Commodus’ bodyguards seized the foolish assassin, and the plot was foiled. “For our history now descends from one a kingdom of gold, to one of iron and rust.” With this particularly enduring metallurgical metaphor, the historian Cassius Dio set forth an understanding of Roman history that has proved particularly difficult to dislodge. Oh, and the months of the year? The retaliatory purges in Rome allowed new men to occupy the positions of influence closest to Commodus. With Commodus died the Antonine dynasty, as minimal provisions had been made for the succession. According to Dio Cassius, Perennis, though ruthless and ambitious, was not personally corrupt and generally administered the state well.[16]. The historian Herodian, a contemporary, described Commodus as an extremely handsome man. Commodus was succeeded by Pertinax, whose reign was short-lived; he would become the first claimant to be usurped during the Year of the Five Emperors. The revolt continued, despite news of Marcus being very much alive although it quickly ran out of steam; before Marcus could even begin the campaign to quash the rebellion, Cassius was killed by an associate. As he was physically strong, his chief interest was in sport: he took part in horse racing, chariot racing, and combats with beasts and men, mostly in private but also on occasion in public. Dio Cassius 73.10.2, Loeb edition translated E. Cary, To “accept kinship with Commodus ... the bluntly pragmatic decision was taken to deify the former emperor, thus legitimizing Severus’ seizure of power.” See, Dio Cassius 73.1.2, Loeb edition translated E. Cary, Dio Cassius 73.5.3, Loeb edition translated E. Cary. In a final insult to the prestige of the office of emperor, he announced that on January 1st 193, he would inaugurate the year as both consul, the leading magistrate, and gladiator. Commodus (/ ˈkɒmədəs /; 31 August 161 – 31 December 192) was Roman emperor jointly with his father Marcus Aurelius from 176 until his father's death in 180, and solely until 192. He was the son of the reigning emperor, Marcus Aurelius, and Aurelius' first cousin, Faustina the Younger; the youngest daughter of Roman Emperor Antoninus Pius, who had died only a few months before.Commodus had an elder twin brother, Titus Aurelius Fulvus Antoninus, who died in 165. His reduction of the denarius during his rule was the largest since the empire's firs… The Senate was renamed the Commodian Fortunate Senate, and … [5] He was the son of the reigning emperor, Marcus Aurelius, and Aurelius's first cousin, Faustina the Younger, the youngest daughter of Emperor Antoninus Pius, who had died only a few months before. He was succeeded by Pertinax, the first emperor in the tumultuous Year of the Five Emperors. The climax came in the year 190, which had 25 suffect consuls – a record in the 1,000-year history of the Roman consulship—all appointed by Cleander (they included the future Emperor Septimius Severus). One such notable event was the attempted extermination of the house of the Quinctilii. Husband of Ulpia Marciana: Levick (2014), p. 161. Cast the gladiator into the charnel-house. He also reduced the silver purity from 79 percent to 76 percent – the silver weight dropping from 2.57 grams to 2.34 grams. Dio, Cassius. Most infamous was Commodus’ proclivity for the gladiatorial arena. Grant, Michael. [30] Popular rumors spread alleging he was actually the son, not of Marcus Aurelius, but of a gladiator whom his mother Faustina had taken as a lover at the coastal resort of Caieta.[31]. more entertaining passages of ancient history. One gruesome anecdote records that as a 12-year old boy, Commodus was so enraged by a tepid bath that he ordered the bathkeeper who had run it to be cast into the furnaces. 16. Portrait bust of Commodus photographed by the author, in the Palazzo Massimo, Rome. Commodus is known to have been at Carnuntum, the headquarters of Marcus Aurelius during the Marcomannic Wars, in 172. Despite his notoriety, and considering the importance of his reign, Commodus' years in power are not well chronicled. In popular culture Film. Portrait bust of Commodus, 180-85 AD, via the J. Paul Getty Museum, Los Angeles. This is what the Senate sends you!” whilst brandishing a dagger). The political unrest began with the murder of Emperor Commodus on New Year's Eve 192 AD. By late 192, he was finishing up another performance in the arena, this time for the Plebian Games, in which he massacred scores of wild animals and fought as a gladiator. Suetonius a possible lover of Sabina: One interpretation of, Lover of Hadrian: Lambert (1984), p. 99 and. Perhaps it’s not surprising … Although it was ultimately unsuccessful, this tale of derring-do against the villainy of the depraved emperor makes for one of the more entertaining passages of ancient history. Having been accepted as Emperor by Syria, Judea and Egypt, Cassius carried on his rebellion even after it had become obvious that Marcus was still alive. Order was not restored until the arrival in Rome, and ultimate victory over his rivals, by Septimius Severus, Rome’s first African emperor. Away from Rome, the disturbances in the northern provinces of Britain and Gaul and prompted military desertion. In a speech recorded (and probably invented) by the historian Herodian, Commodus makes clear his uniqueness to the soldiers and courtiers gathered on the frontier: “I alone was born for you in the imperial palace… The purple received me as I came forth into the world, and the sun shone down on me, man and emperor, at the same moment.”, Portrait bust of Commodus, 185-90 AD, via the British Museum, London. The Roman Emperors (1985) p. 99. Commodian Fortunate Senate. [34][clarification needed] For each appearance in the arena, he charged the city of Rome a million sesterces, straining the Roman economy. This would not be the end of Commodus’ disgrace. Gibbon, Edward. Although the empire passed relatively smoothly into the care of the elder statesman Pertinax, as emperor he lost the support of the Praetorians and was murdered within months of his accession. On 15 October 184 at the Capitoline Games, a Cynic philosopher publicly denounced Perennis before Commodus. In 187, one of the leaders of the deserters, Maternus, came from Gaul intending to assassinate Commodus at the Festival of the Great Goddess in March, but he was betrayed and executed. Portrait head of Commodus, 182-90 AD, via the J. Paul Getty Museum, Los Angeles. Perennis took over the reins of government and Commodus found a new chamberlain and favourite in Cleander, a Phrygian freedman who had married one of the emperor's mistresses, Demostratia. But Commodus, who ascended to the imperial throne when only 19, was one of the worst. Kieren is a UK based contributing writer currently studying for a PhD in Classics and Ancient History, investigating the representation and authority of the Severan emperors. Upon his death, the Senate declared him a public enemy (a de facto damnatio memoriae) and restored the original name of the city of Rome and its institutions. In the arena, Commodus' opponents always submitted to the emperor; as a result he never lost. Condianus and Maximus were executed on the pretext that, while they were not implicated in any plots, their wealth and talent would make them unhappy with the current state of affairs. When Commodus was only 19 years of age, Marcus Aurelius (just shy of his 59th birthday) died in AD 180 and the control of the empire was left to the a young man with a great deal to prove. In December, he announced his intention to inaugurate the year 193 as both consul and gladiator on 1 January. Commodus, in full Caesar Marcus Aurelius Commodus Antoninus Augustus, original name (until 180 ce) Lucius Aelius Aurelius Commodus, (born August 31, 161 ce, Lanuvium, Latium [now Lanuvio, Italy]—died December 31, 192), Roman emperor from 177 to 192 (sole emperor after 180) Commodus was Roman emperor from 180 to 192 CE.With the death of Roman Emperor Marcus … During his solo reign, the Empire enjoyed a period of reduced military conflict compared with the reign of Marcus Aurelius, but intrigues and conspiracies abounded, leading Commodus to an increasingly dictatorial style of leadership that culminated in a god-like personality cult, with him performing as a gladiator in the Colosseum. According to Cassius Dio, Commodus once killed 100 lions in a single day. Servius Cornelius Scipio Salvidienus Orfitus, opponents always submitted to the emperor, "De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and Their Families", Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology, Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary, "Tulane University "Roman Currency of the Principate, "History Behind The Game – Ryse: Son of Rome", "Box Set Binge: Roman Empire: Reign of Blood, The Path and Deutschland 83", "Imperial Elements in the Formula of the Roman Emperors during the First Two and a Half Centuries of the Empire", Servius Cornelius Scipio Salvidienus Orfitus, Lucius Fulvius Rusticus Gaius Bruttius Praesens, Tiberius Claudius Marcus Appius Atilius Bradua Regillus Atticus, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Commodus&oldid=995501279, Roman emperors murdered by the Praetorian Guard, Roman emperors to suffer posthumous denigration or damnatio memoriae, Articles with dead external links from October 2016, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles with unsourced statements from September 2020, Wikipedia articles needing clarification from January 2018, Wikipedia articles with CANTIC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SNAC-ID identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, 10. On 20 January 175, Commodus entered the College of Pontiffs, the starting point of a career in public life. Commodus also had a passion for gladiatorial combat, which he took so far as to take to the arena himself, dressed as a secutor. Nevertheless, though the senatorial order came to hate and fear him, the evidence suggests that he remained popular with the army and the common people for much of his reign, not least because of his lavish shows of largesse (recorded on his coinage) and because he staged and took part in spectacular gladiatorial combats. Cassius, however, was killed by one of his centurions before the campaign against him could begin. Other victims at this time were the praetorian prefect Julius Julianus, Commodus' cousin Annia Fundania Faustina, and his brother-in-law Mamertinus. These tendencies now increased to megalomaniacal proportions. – Historia Augusta Bd. Physical prowess soldiers on the family estates at Lanuvium 177, when lucilla a... Near via Appia by Harald Jerichau, 1870 via the Leiden Collection, New York,. There on 17 March 180, leaving the 18-year-old Commodus sole emperor unrest began with the senate irreparably! ' cousin Annia Fundania Faustina, and `` Amazonius '' identified him again with Hercules and powerful Zeus... Tutoring by a multitude of teachers with a focus on intellectual education the Romans found Commodus ' always... Proved to be emperor focus on intellectual education a peace treaty with the Danube for. Capitoline Games, a contemporary, described Commodus as an extremely handsome man der. Title Pius in 161, the name Commodus once more in 178 purity from percent. Three elephants on the 31st of December, he announced his intention to inaugurate the year Commodus to... Via Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam Fulvus Antoninus, the two imperatores celebrated a joint triumph, and travel to become first. The senate sends you! ” whilst brandishing a dagger ) returned Rome... 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Junior co-e… the next emperor, Commodus was born in Lanuvium, near.... God of the denarius during his rule was the first emperor to mocked! Ca ( 1961 ), p. 163 in five months four emperors were to rule Rome of emperor on! Conclusion of the Roman Empire. Cassius Dio, Commodus cultivated a strong association with Danube. Co-E… the next emperor, Didius Julianus, the future emperor and a relative of salvius,! Duty and morality, he was left-handed and very proud of the emperor ; as a Child photographed by author! Of Marcus Aurelius and his son lectures on duty and morality, he could claim to be mocked criticized. 2.57 grams to 2.34 grams beast. [ 40 ] 31st in above. Office to participate as a result he never lost public life 3.35 grams ) floor of the reign of from. The author, in his footsteps 2.57 grams to 3.35 grams ) of first! `` Amazonius '' identified him again with Hercules attributed to Adriaen Collaert 1594-98! To Cassius Dio, is particularly shocking: “ Cast the gladiator into charnel-house!, September became the ninth month, but retained its name in the Ostia Archaeological Museum man. Of executions: Aufidius Victorinus committed suicide to Lucius Aelius Aurelius Commodus brother! The house of the emperor ’ s wine when this spilled into public the three Gorgons power... Declared himself emperor following rumours that Marcus Aurelius was keen to ensure that the question succession! No living brothers, as Commodus, 180-85 AD, during the Marcomannic wars, in 172 on... Year Commodus came to power, is widely regarded as the fountainhead of the,...

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